Learning is the process by which an individual acquires knowledge, attitudes and skills that are necessary to meet the demands of life. While touching a burning candle, a child gets burnt and he withdraws the fingers. When he faces a similar situation again he withdraws his fingers faster. Gradually he learns to avoid not only the burning candle but also other burning things. The behaviour of an individual is thus changed through experiences. This change in behaviour brought about by experiences is commonly known as learning.
Intelligence is a person’s capacity to (1) acquire knowledge (i.e. learn and understand), (2) apply knowledge (solve problems), and (3) engage in abstract reasoning. It is the power of one’s intellect, and as such is clearly a very important aspect of one’s overall well-being. Psychologists have attempted to measure it for well over a century.
Psychologists have attempted to understand the structure of intelligence for which they have formulated theories. Among the important theories of intelligence, we shall study three of them.
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
Guilford’s Theory of Structure of Intellect (S. I Model)
Thurston’s Group Factor Theory
One of the most important single variables, which affect schooling, is intelligence. Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge. Success in school and colleges and in one’s own profession, social adjustment, possession of general information etc. are all associated with the concept of “intelligence”. The word intelligence is derived from the Latin verb ‘intellegere’ which means understanding.
What is Psychology?
The word, ‘Psychology’ is derived from two Greek words, ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’. Psyche means ‘soul’ and ‘Logos’ means ‘science’. Thus psychology was first defined as the ‘science of soul”.
Meaning of Philosophy
The word ‘Philosophy’ is made up of two Greek words – ‘Philo’ and ‘Sophia’. Philo means ‘love’ and Sophia means ‘wisdom.’ Philosophy is the ‘love of wisdom or knowledge.’ In Indian philosophy, ‘darsana’ is the word used for philosophy. It means ‘the vision of the real or truth’, which is nothing but God. The aim of philosophy is the search for wisdom. One who is engaged in this process may be said to be a philosopher. In his famous book ‘Republic’, Plato says, “He who has a taste for every sort of knowledge and who is curious to learn and is never satisfied may be justly termed a Philosopher.”
Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquires knowledge, experience, skill and sound attitude. It makes an individual civilized, refined, cultured and educated. For a civilized and socialized society, education is the only means. Its goal is to make an individual perfect. Every society gives importance to education because it is a panacea for all evils. It is the key to solve the various problems of life.