Need for guidance, and the nature and aims of guidance are based on certain principles and assumptions. The principles of guidance generally accepted are the ones given by Crow and Crow. They are:
1. Principle of all-round development of the individual. Guidance must take into account the all-round development of the individual when bringing about desirable adjustment in any particular area of his personality.
2. The principle of human uniqueness. No two individuals are alike. Individuals differ in their physical, mental, social and emotional development. Guidance service must recognise these differences and guide each individual according to their specific need.
3. Principle of holistic development. Guidance has to be imparted in the context of total development of personality. The child grows as a whole and even if one aspect of personality is in focus, the other areas of development which are indirectly influencing the personality have also to be kept in mind.
4. The principle of cooperation. No individual can be forced into guidance. The consent and cooperation of the individual is a pre-requisite for providing guidance.
5. The principle of continuity. Guidance should be regarded as a continuous process of service to an individual in different stages of his life.
6. The principle of extension. Guidance service should not be limited to a few persons, who give observable evidence of its need, but it should be extended to all persons of all ages, who can benefit from it directly or indirectly.
7. The principle of elaboration. Curriculum materials and teaching procedures should be elaborated according to the view point of guidance.
8. The principle of adjustment. While it is true that guidance touches every aspect of an individual’s life, it is chiefly concerned with an individual’s physical or mental health, with his adjustment at home, school, society and vocation.
9. Principle of individual needs. The individual and his needs are of utmost significance. Recognition of individual freedom, worth, respect and dignity is the hallmark of guidance. Freedom to make a choice and take a decision needs to be respected and encouraged.
10. The principle of expert opinion. Specific and serious guidance problems should be referred to persons who are trained to deal with particular area of adjustment for their expert opinion.
11. The principle of evaluation. The guidance programme should be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness and improvement. Evaluation is essential for the formulation of new goals or re-drafting the existing goals.
12. The principle of responsibility. Parents and teachers have great responsibility in the execution of the work of guidance. The responsibility for guidance should be centred on a qualified and trained person, who is the head the guidance centre.
13. The principle of periodic appraisal. Periodic appraisal should be made of the existing guidance programme so that requisite changes, if any can be carried out for its improvement.
Conclusion. Wise and experienced leadership in guidance is, extremely important. It is often said that “As the principal is, so is the school.” This statement holds equally for organized guidance programs. Intelligent application of the basic principles to the operation of a school program of guidance services has value not only for the young or older pupils for whose benefit the program has been organized but also for their parents, the members of the school staff, and the community at large.