Technology has significantly affected human as well as other animal species’ ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The human species’ use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools.
The pre-historical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
The word Technology originated from Greek, ‘tekhnologia’ meaning “systematic treatment of an art, craft, or skill.”
Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or serve some purpose. It is a science of techniques i.e. methods of doing/getting things done related to any art or science or a particular profession. In short, it is a systematic way of evolving and applying the scientific techniques.
MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
The term Educational Technology was first used by Brynmor Jones Robert in UK in 1967.
Educational Technology is the systematic application of scientific knowledge to education. Educational Technology involves input, output and process aspects of education. Educational Technology stresses on the development of methods and techniques for effective learning. Educational Technology is helpful in making the teaching process objective, easy, clear, interesting and scientific.
Educational Technology facilitates learning by controlling the environment, media and methods. It stresses the organization of learning situations for the effective realization of the goals of education.
Educational technology is any subject that meets these two norms – systematic application of scientific knowledge to the practical tasks and the division of the practical tasks into sections and sub-sections.
Educational technology defines teaching objectives in behavioural terms. It is the science on the basis of which various methods and techniques are developed and constructed in order to achieve pre-determined teaching objectives.
The National Council of Educational Technology (1971) defined “Educational Technology as development, application and evaluation of systems, techniques, skills and aids to improve the process of human learning.”
G.O.M. Leith (1969): “Educational technology is the systematic application of scientific knowledge about teaching-learning and conditions of learning to improve the effectiveness of teaching and training.”
S. S. Kulkarni (1986): “Educational Technology may be defined as the application of the laws as well as recent discoveries of Science and Technology to the process of education.”
Robert A Cox (1978): “Educational Technology is the application of scientific process to man’s learning conditions.”
Shiv K. Mitra: “Educational Technology can be conceived as a science of techniques and methods by which educational goals could be realized.”